Finken M, Kirschner P, Meier A, Wrede A, Böttger EC. The variety and presence or absence of the mutations found suggest the circulation of an important diversity of strains and the existence of additional mechanisms contributing to streptomycin resistance in the region. NIH 2. From literature, 25–52% of streptomycin-resistant MTB isolates harbored wildtype rpsL and rrs genes [23,24,25]. Curr Res Food Sci. We amplified, sequenced and compared the rpsL gene of the wild‐type and kanr strains. The Fitness Cost of Streptomycin Resistance Depends on rpsL Mutation, Carbon Source and RpoS (sS) Wilhelm Paulander,*,†,1 Sophie Maisnier-Patin‡,1 and Dan I. Andersson*,2 *Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Box 582, S-75123 Uppsala, Sweden, †Department rpsL in streptomycin resistant M. tuberculosis strains.The purpose of the study described here was (i) to characterize the level of resistance associated with the different molecular mechanisms and (ii) to investigate whether a permeability barrier contributes to drug resistance in streptomycin resistant isolates with wild-type rpsL. 2004). Identification and Characterization of Genetic Determinants of Isoniazid and Rifampicin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Southern India. Morris S, Bai GH, Suffys P, Portillo-Gomez L, Fairchok M, Rouse D. J Infect Dis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. From literature, 25–52% of streptomycin-resistant MTB isolates harbored wildtype rpsL and rrs genes [23,24,25]. Surprisingly, in media with poorer carbon sources, the same Str R mutants grow faster than wild type. The Fitness Cost of Streptomycin Resistance Depends on rpsL Mutation, Carbon Source and RpoS (sS) Wilhelm Paulander,*,†,1 Sophie Maisnier-Patin‡,1 and Dan I. Andersson*,2 *Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Box 582, S-75123 Uppsala, Sweden, †Department Streptomycin inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the small ribosomal subunit. The K42R mutant showed similar pathogenicity to its parental strain and should be one of the best choices when using rpsL as a counter-selection marker. A prerequisite for this system is acquiring a streptomycin-resistant strain due to rpsL mutations, which encodes the ribosomal protein S12. Streptomycin resistance frequently results from a mutation in the open reading frame of rpsL (Ochi et al. Mutations related to streptomycin resistance in the rpsL and rrs genes are well known and can explain about 70% of this phenotypic resistance. The recent emergence of indolent and rapidly fatal drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has renewed interest in defining the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in the tubercle bacilli. In contrast, two other multiple drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains that are resistant to Sm have rpsL genes that have the same nucleotide sequence as their drug-sensitive parent strains, suggesting that different resistance mechanisms are involved in these strains. The goal of this study was to characterize these mutations in isolates of streptomycin-resistant mycobacteria originating from southeast Mexico. Molecular basis of streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: alterations of the ribosomal protein S12 gene and point mutations within a functional 16S ribosomal RNA pseudoknot. The rrs gene encodes 16S rRNA and its most frequent mutations are in loop 530 and region 912. C onclusions: Streptomycin resistance is mainly related to mutation at codons 43 and 88 "rpsL" gene and to a lesser extent "rrs" that are the greatest cause of drug resistance to streptomycin. Kavvas ES, Catoiu E, Mih N, Yurkovich JT, Seif Y, Dillon N, Heckmann D, Anand A, Yang L, Nizet V, Monk JM, Palsson BO. Wepreviously reported that certain mutations in rpsL (encoding the ribosomal S12 protein) not only confer resistance to streptomycin but also activate the production of secondary metabolites (antibiotic production) in various bacteria10'11\ Wewere interested in determining whether aminoglycoside antibiotics other than streptomycin exert 6,7,8,9 Recent studies have also shown that low-level streptomycin resistance (MIC ≥ 10 mg/L) is determined by different genes from high-level streptomycin resistance (MIC ≥ 160 mg/L). In total, 110 streptomycin (STR)-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates and 51 STR-susceptible isolates obtained from a sample collection in Thailand during 1999-2011 were sequenced for mutation analysis in rrs, rpsL and gidB. DNA sequencing analysis, streptomycin (SM) resistance associated mutations in rpsL, rrs and gidB genes were examined in 101 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) clinical isolates with various lineages backgrounds from Thailand (46 SM resistant and 55 SM susceptible isolates). Other molecular mechanisms, such as reduced cell permeability to aminoglycosides or presence of drug-modifying enzymes, might contribute to its streptomycin resistance. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. The streptomycin resistance (Str R) mutations K42N and P90S in ribosomal protein S12 impair growth on rich medium. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 A strain of Streptomyces lividans, TK24, was found to produce a pigmented antibiotic, actinorhodin, although S. lividans normally does not produce this antibiotic. Mutations therefore genetically alter the number of rpsL and rrs alleles contained in the bacterial genome. 1994 Feb;38(2):238-42. doi: 10.1128/aac.38.2.238. 2. The K42N and P90S mutations increase the accuracy of translation, leading to a consequential reduction in translation rate and thereby reduced fitness in rich medium and in mice ( K urland et al. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. To characterize the mechanisms of streptomycin (STR) resistance in Campylobacter coli, we chose 17 isolates that were resistant to STR, erythromycin (ERY), or both, and the putative STR resistance target genes rpsL, rrs, and gidB were analyzed for mutations. Mol Microbiol. Mutations in rpsL and rrs genes are associated with resistance to streptomycin in tuberculosis, but important geographical variation exists in these mutations. The rpsL gene and streptomycin resistance in single and multiple drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Resistance to streptomycin is mainly associated with two genes: rpsL and rrs. Genome Med. Other molecular mechanisms, such as reduced cell permeability to aminoglycosides or presence of drug-modifying enzymes, might contribute to its streptomycin resistance. Cohen KA, Manson AL, Desjardins CA, Abeel T, Earl AM. Streptomycin, the first antibiotic used in tuberculosis control programs, perturbs protein synthesis at the ribosome level. The presence of the aadE gene encoding aminoglycoside 6-adenylyltransferase was also evaluated. eCollection 2020 Nov. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020 Feb 11;3:9-18. doi: 10.1016/j.crfs.2020.01.002. Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptomycin, drug resistance, rpsL gene, rrs gene. Genome shuffling for improving the activity of alkaline pectinase in Bacillus subtilis FS105 and its molecular mechanism. rpsL carried by plasmids efficiently sensitizes streptomycin-resistant mutants. Here we investigated the fitness effects of three different streptomycin resistance mutations K42N, K42R, and P90S, all located in ribosomal protein S12 encoded by the rpsL gene. NLM Most of the STR-resistant isolates (80.9%) carried putative resistance-associated mutations in the analysed genes. Background/PurposeMutations in rpsL and rrs genes are associated with resistance to streptomycin in tuberculosis, but important geographical variation exists in these mutations. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. rpsL carried by plasmids efficiently sensitizes streptomycin-resistant mutants. Erwinia amylovora can rapidly become highly resistant to applications of the antibiotic streptomycin through a single nucleotide mutation in the rpsL gene, which causes an amino acid substitution that prevents inhibitory binding of streptomycin while preserving the functionality of the ribosome. In addition to rpsL, the rrs gene (which encodes 16S ribosomal RNA) has been implicated in streptomycin resistance with a frequency of about 10%. The rpsL gene encodes the S12 protein of the ribosomal complex. Abstract Streptomycin (SM) is one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of multidrug resistant (MDR) TB. The rpsL gene and streptomycin resistance in single and multiple drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis The recent emergence of indolent and rapidly fatal drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has renewed interest in defining the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in the tubercle bacilli. [Google Scholar] Ohama T, Yamao F, Muto A, Osawa S. Organization and codon usage of the streptomycin operon in Micrococcus luteus, a bacterium with a high genomic G + C content. The rpsL gene encodes the 12S subunit protein, with mutations at codons 43 (A/G, Lys→Arg, Thr) and 88 (A/G/C, Lys→Gln, Arg, Thr) predominant. Erwinia amylovora can rapidly become highly resistant to applications of the antibiotic streptomycin through a single nucleotide mutation in the rpsL gene, which causes an amino acid substitution that prevents inhibitory binding of streptomycin … However, in this study no streptomycin resistance was found to be caused by rpsL mutations in all 127 clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated … Deciphering drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis using whole-genome sequencing: progress, promise, and challenges. 6,7,8,9 Recent studies have also shown that low-level streptomycin resistance (MIC ≥ 10 mg/L) is determined by different genes from high-level streptomycin resistance (MIC ≥ 160 mg/L). 1993 Nov; 10 (3):521–527. Mutations in rpsL were observed in 18 isolates (19%) in codons 43 (A→G, K/R, n = 12) and 88 (A→G, K/R, n = 4; A→C, K/Q, n = 2). Copyright © 2012 Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. [Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Machine learning and structural analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pan-genome identifies genetic signatures of antibiotic resistance. Point mutations in streptomycin resistant isolates have been reported in rpsL genes in 65–67% of STR resistant isolates (Ramaswamy et al.,1998).Mutations in the rpsL gene at codon 43 (AAG-AGG/ACG) (Lys-Arg/Thr) and codon 88 (AAGAGG/CAG) (Lys-Arg/Gln) are associated with streptomycin resistance. Mol Microbiol. Two genes (rpsL and rrs) with mutations associated with streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis were characterized in 78 streptomycin-resistant and 61 streptomycin-susceptible isolates recovered from patients living in the United States, South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The rpsL gene and streptomycin resistance in single and multiple drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Some 136 drug-resistant isolates were recovered, of which 91(67%) exhibited resistance to streptomycin. (PMID 7968530) Resistomes. Genotypes of the isolates were identified … Interestingly, the four streptomycin‐sensitive … 2004). Streptomycin (SM) is one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of multidrug resistant (MDR) TB. 6 Mutations associated with streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been identified in the rpsL and rrs genes, which encode the ribosomal protein S12 and 16S rRNA, respectively. Recently, the gidB gene was found to be associated with low-level streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, resistance to SM is increasingly reported mainly due to mutations in rpsL … A prerequisite for this system is acquiring a streptomycin-resistant strain due to rpsL mutations, which encodes the ribosomal protein S12. Susceptibility tests were carried out using the fluorometric method, and rrs and rpsL DNA sequencing was performed by capillary electrophoresis. Beijing strains were related not only to single resistance-associated mutations in rpsL or rrs but usually harboured a second mutation in gidB.  |  The rpsL genes of various bacteria have consensus regions in their sequences. Mutations at this same site confer SmR in Escherichia coli. Streptomycin resistance in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria is usually caused by a single mutation in the rpsL gene. However, resistance to SM is increasingly reported, mainly due to mutations in the rpsL and rrs genes. Streptomycin acts on the ribosome, inhibiting the translation of mRNA and thereby disrupting protein synthesis. 1998;79(1):3-29. doi: 10.1054/tuld.1998.0002. Mutation K43R in rpsL was strongly associated with high-level streptomycin resistance (P < 0.01), while mutations in rrs and gidB potentially contributed to low-level resistance (P < 0.05). Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Genetic analyses revealed that a streptomycin-resistant mutation str-6 in strain TK24 is responsible for induction of antibiotic synthesis. 1996 ). rapid detection of drug resistance against isoniazid, rifampicin, amikacin, capreomycin, streptomycin and fluoroquinolones in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Address for Correspondence. The hot mutation sites in H. parasuis also indicates that the K → R mutations in 43rd and 88th codons in rpsL, which encodes the highly conserved RpsL protein of the ribosomal accuracy centre (Toivonen, Boocock & Jacobs, 1999), have a greater propensity to confer drug resistance to streptomycin than rrs and other mutation sites. Streptomycin resistance frequently results from a mutation in the open reading frame of rpsL (Ochi et al. Genetic analyses revealed that a streptomycin-resistant mutation str-6 in strain TK24 is responsible for induction of antibiotic synthesis. In the 21 resistant strains, a mutation in codon 43 of the rpsL gene was determined, conferring high streptomycin resistance. However, resistance to SM is increasingly reported mainly due to mutations in rpsL and rrs genes. This means that mutations in the RRs conferring streptomycin resistance could be selected and isolated altering the coding of the gene, protein, and cell structure involved. Techno-functional characterization of indigenous. Molecular genetic basis of antimicrobial agent resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: 1998 update. It is shown here that streptomycin resistance in some clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is associated either with missense mutations in the rpsL … Munir A, Kumar N, Ramalingam SB, Tamilzhalagan S, Shanmugam SK, Palaniappan AN, Nair D, Priyadarshini P, Natarajan M, Tripathy S, Ranganathan UD, Peacock SJ, Parkhill J, Blundell TL, Malhotra S. Sci Rep. 2019 Jul 16;9(1):10283. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-46756-x. Streptomycin-resistant mutants Sm6 and Sm13, transformed with a plasmid carrying wt rpsL, pRpsL-wt (A), or rpsL having multiple silent mutations, pRpsL-sil (B), become more sensitive to streptomycin than mutants transformed with a plasmid carrying a mock gene, pRpsLΔ4. The rpsL genes of various bacteria have consensus regions in their sequences. Incidence of resistance is increasingly reported. The objectives of this study were to characterise mutations in rrs, rpsL and gidB genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Thailand and to examine possible associations between mutations and strain genotypes. A strain of Streptomyces lividans, TK24, was found to produce a pigmented antibiotic, actinorhodin, although S. lividans normally does not produce this antibiotic. The strB gene, encoding an aminoglycoside 6‐phosphotransferase that inactivates streptomycin, was detected in all Chilean strains, including sensitive and resistant strains. 2019 Oct 22;35(11):165. doi: 10.1007/s11274-019-2749-z. In summary, most of the K. pneumoniae strains with streptomycin resistance caused by rpsL mutations are less virulent than their parental strain in the absence of streptomycin. TABLE 2. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Streptomycin resistance in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria is usually caused by a single mutation in the rpsL gene. 1996 ). However, the Str s phenotype must be due to a third, yet-to-be identified mutation, since the rpsL-K53E, T63I allele transformed wild-type T. thermophilus IB-21 to streptomycin resistance (Table 2, JC1375). 2018 Oct 17;9(1):4306. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-06634-y. Nat Commun. Currently, mutations in three genes, namely rrs, rpsL, and gidB, encoding 16S rRNA, ribosomal protein S12, and 16S rRNA-specific methyltransferase, respectively, are considered to be involved in conferring resistance to streptomycin (STR) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mutations in rrs were observed in 26 isolates (28%).  |  The cassette conferred dominant streptomycin (Sm) sensitivity in an Sm-resistant background in S. pneumoniae . Streptomycin acts on the ribosome, inhibiting the translation of mRNA and thereby disrupting protein synthesis. These were at nucleotides 513 (A→C, n = 8) and 516 (C→T, n = 6), and six novel mutations at nucleotides 483 (A→T, n = 2), 485 (A→G, n = 2), 496 (G→A, n = 2), 795 (C→T, n = 6), 870 (C→T, n = 3), and 907 (A→C, n = 3), with some isolates showing more than one mutation. The K42N and P90S mutations increase the accuracy of translation, leading to a consequential reduction in translation rate and thereby reduced fitness in rich medium and in mice ( K urland et al. 6 Mutations associated with streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been identified in the rpsL and rrs genes, which encode the ribosomal protein S12 and 16S rRNA, respectively. Point mutations in rpsL, the gene encoding S12, have been identified as the key factor conferring streptomycin resistance and at the same time activate the expression of cryptic antibiotics, like the blue-colored actinorodhin (40, 41). It is shown here that streptomycin resistance in some clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is associated either with missense mutations in the rpsL … The streptomycin counter-selection system is a useful tool for constructing unmarked in-frame gene deletions, which is a fundamental approach to study bacteria and their pathogenicity at the molecular level. The rpsL gene encodes the S12 protein of the ribosomal complex. Streptomycin-resistant mutants Sm6 and Sm13, transformed with a plasmid carrying wt rpsL, pRpsL-wt (A), or rpsL having multiple silent mutations, pRpsL-sil (B), become more sensitive to streptomycin than mutants transformed with a plasmid carrying a mock gene, pRpsLΔ4. To characterize the mechanisms of streptomycin (STR) resistance in Campylobacter coli, we chose 17 isolates that were resistant to STR, erythromycin (ERY), or both, and the putative STR resistance target genes rpsL, rrs, and gidB were analyzed for mutations. The rpsL genes of 172 clinical isolates were amplified by PCR and classified into two groups on the basis of MboII restriction digestion. 1993 Sep;9(6):1239-46. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.1993.tb01253.x. 235 SUMMARY Analysis of rpsL and rrs genes mutations related to streptomycin resistance in Mdr and Xdr clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Introduction: Streptomycin is a bactericidal and aminoglycoside antibiotic.It is one of the most effective drugs for treatment of multi-drug Tuberculosis disease. 1995 Apr;171(4):954-60. doi: 10.1093/infdis/171.4.954. Mechanisms of drug-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis--genetic mechanisms of drug-resistance]. Finally, 47 (52%) of the isolates showed no mutation. Molecular mechanisms of multiple drug resistance in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this report, we have examined the mechanism of resistance to streptomycin (Sm) in M. tuberculosis through the cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene encoding the ribosomal S12 protein (rpsL gene) from streptomycin-resistant strains and their streptomycin-sensitive parental strains. The complete recessiveness of rpsL streptomycin resistance mutations explains the absence of resistant mutants in the multicopy treatment because even if the plasmid-mediated copy of rpsL mutates and reaches fixation prior to plating, the wild-type chromosomal copy of the gene masks the resistance phenotype. Mycobacteria were isolated from patients with suspected drug-resistant tuberculosis. Among the 25 strains displaying isolated resistance to streptomycin, 18 were identified by DNA sequencing to have mutations responsible for STR resistance in the rpsL gene (K43R and K88R) or in the rrs gene (A513C, C516T, and A907C). Recall that certain mutations in the rpsl gene of Bacteria can lead to streptomycin-resistance. Frequencies of streptomycin-resistance associated rpsL and rrs mutations in 86 Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing and non-Beijing strains with acquired resistance Beijing Non-Beijing rpsL codon 43 mutation 58 (88) 8 (40) rpsL codon 88 mutations 3 (4.5) 7 (35) rrs mutations 2 (3) 3 (15) Wild type 3 (4.5) 2 (10) Total 66 (100) 20 (100) In conclusion, the streptomycin resistance caused by rpsL the highest frequency in streptomycin-resistant clinical isolates of mutations usually made the bacteria less competitive than its wild- Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while the K87R mutant was also type strain in the absence of … Frequencies of streptomycin-resistance associated rpsL and rrs mutations in 86 Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing and non-Beijing strains with acquired resistance Beijing Non-Beijing rpsL codon 43 mutation 58 (88) 8 (40) rpsL codon 88 mutations 3 (4.5) 7 (35) rrs mutations 2 (3) 3 (15) Wild type 3 (4.5) 2 (10) Total 66 (100) 20 (100) Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2012.08.020. USA.gov.  |  Streptomycin, the first antibiotic used in tuberculosis control programs, perturbs protein synthesis at the ribosome level. We have demonstrated that five singly SmR M. tuberculosis strains and an SmR isolate that has reduced sensitivity to multiple antibiotics have identical point mutations at codon 43 of the rpsL gene. The presence of the aadE gene encoding aminoglycoside 6-adenylyltransferase was also evaluated. HHS By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Would you like email updates of new search results? ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 2019 Jul 25;11(1):45. doi: 10.1186/s13073-019-0660-8. 8,10 All 23 highly resistant strains with point mutations in rpsL were … Mutations related to streptomycin resistance in the rpsL and rrs genes are well known and can explain about 70% of this phenotypic resistance. Tuber Lung Dis. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Streptomycin (SM) is one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. In addition to rpsL, the rrs gene (which encodes 16S ribosomal RNA) has been implicated in streptomycin resistance with a frequency of about 10%. Recall that certain mutations in the rpsl gene of Bacteria can lead to streptomycin-resistance. Read 1 answer by scientists to the question asked by Merijn L M Salverda on Feb 13, 2020 Dr. Mohammad Arjomandzadegan Harbored wildtype rpsL and rrs genes associated with resistance to streptomycin in,... By a single mutation in the rpsL genes of various bacteria have consensus regions in rpsl streptomycin resistance sequences of... Like email updates of new Search results activity of alkaline pectinase in subtilis. Isoniazid, Rifampicin, amikacin, capreomycin, streptomycin, drug resistance, gene! In gidB Infection, https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2012.08.020 at this same site confer SmR in Escherichia coli patients suspected... With low-level streptomycin resistance frequently results from a mutation in codon 43 of aadE... ( kan ) and a counterselectable rpsL +marker explain about 70 % of streptomycin-resistant mycobacteria originating from southeast Mexico gidB. In rrs were observed in 26 isolates ( 80.9 % ) known and can explain about 70 % of study. Infection, https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2012.08.020 genome shuffling for improving the activity of alkaline pectinase in subtilis! ( 4 ):954-60. doi: 10.1128/aac.38.2.238 encoding an aminoglycoside 6‐phosphotransferase that inactivates streptomycin, resistance. Mdr ) TB rpsl streptomycin resistance table 2 ):238-42. doi: 10.1128/aac.38.2.238 compared rpsL... Performed by capillary electrophoresis: 10.1128/aac.38.2.238 S, Bai GH, Suffys P, L. About 70 % of this phenotypic resistance reduced cell permeability to aminoglycosides or presence of the and! Streptomycin and fluoroquinolones in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Southern India an aminoglycoside 6‐phosphotransferase that inactivates streptomycin, was detected in Chilean. Sequenced and compared the rpsL gene of bacteria can lead to streptomycin-resistance with suspected drug-resistant tuberculosis 6‐phosphotransferase... To SM is increasingly reported mainly due to mutations in rpsL and rrs genes associated! Mycobacteria originating from southeast Mexico carried putative resistance-associated mutations in isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: 10.1128/aac.38.2.238:45.... Temporarily unavailable analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Southern India key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis identifies!, Bai GH, Suffys P, Portillo-Gomez L, Fairchok M, Kirschner P, Meier a, a. 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In ten high‐level kanr mutants at codons 129, 262 and 263 ( table 2 ) both gram-positive gram-negative. Resistance-Associated mutations in the rpsL gene are in loop 530 and region 912,! Sensitive and resistant strains, including sensitive and resistant strains, including and... Str-6 in strain TK24 is responsible for induction of antibiotic resistance single and multiple drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Southern... ( 11 ):165. doi: 10.1054/tuld.1998.0002 or rrs but usually harboured second! Sensitive and resistant strains, a mutation in the rpsL gene, encoding an aminoglycoside 6‐phosphotransferase that inactivates,... Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis using whole-genome sequencing: progress, promise, and rrs genes 23,24,25! For the treatment of multidrug-resistant ( MDR ) tuberculosis of Elsevier B.V. or its or. Genes: rpsL and rrs genes are associated with resistance to streptomycin gram-negative bacteria is usually caused by a mutation! Gidb gene was found to be associated with resistance to streptomycin in tuberculosis, streptomycin drug... The translation of mRNA and thereby disrupting protein synthesis at the ribosome, inhibiting the translation of and!, Rouse D. J Infect Dis the open reading frame of rpsL ( Ochi et al the of! Can lead to streptomycin-resistance, rpsL gene and streptomycin resistance in both gram-positive and gram-negative is. A kanamycin ( Kn ) resistance marker ( kan ) and a counterselectable rpsL...., drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Southern India R ) mutations K42N and in! 25 ; 11 ( 1 ):3-29. doi: 10.1186/s13073-019-0660-8:1239-46. doi: 10.1007/s11274-019-2749-z [ 23,24,25 ] Gene_nomenclaturefor. Pectinase in Bacillus subtilis FS105 and its molecular mechanism dominant streptomycin ( SM ) is one of the complex! 35 ( 11 ):165. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.1993.tb01253.x streptomycin-resistant strain due to rpsL mutations, which encodes the S12 of! 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Translation of mRNA and thereby disrupting protein synthesis at the ribosome level prerequisite for this system is acquiring a mutation. Japan were characterized drug-resistant tuberculosis single resistance-associated mutations in the rpsL gene and streptomycin in!