Genetic organization of the strA-strB genes. The tnpR-strA-strB-IR region of pIP1203, which displayed a Tn5393-like organization, was flanked on both sides by sequences highly similar to portions of the broad-host-range IncP plasmid R751[21]. Attempts were made to transfer streptomycin resistance from Y. pestis 16/95 by conjugation to recipient strains (MIC ≤ 8 mg/L) (Table 2). These factors cannot get inserted into the bacterial chromosome. Analysis of plasmid pIP1203. The IncP-1beta plasmid pB8, which confers resistance to amoxicillin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, and sulfonamides, was previously isolated from a sewage treatment plant. Plasmid maps are often not helpful: I have seen the aadA gene in pENTR223.1 annotated with SmR (Streptomycin Resistance, like in SnapGene) or SpnR (Spectinomycin Resistance, like in the maps from the ORFeome collection). This portion of the element is inserted in R751, a broad-host-range plasmid belonging to the IncP group. Several plasmids from Staph. Hemanta Koley The streptomycin-resistance locus was found to be on a plasmid of 68 kb. vesicatoria[19,20]. About one third of streptomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is mediated by APH-(3″). Annie Guiyoule, Guy Gerbaud, Carmen Buchrieser, Marc Galimand, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France; Lila Rahalison, Suzanne Chanteau, Institut Pasteur, Antananarivo, Madagascar; Patrice Courvalin, Elisabeth Carniel, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. syringae pv. The arrow indicates the extra large-size DNA fragment in strain 16/95. h�b```f``����cB�F������;(*01�v```lvM"�0a��� A`Y930�� �ف�l�F>�椫��&��'�X\����fqu��0 O� K����T�Y� �t#A To clone the streptomycin-resistant determinant, DNA from plasmids pIP1203 and pUC18 was partially digested with Sau 3AI and Bam HI, respectively, ligated, and introduced into E. … Plasmids associated with resistance to streptomycin, to streptomycin plus chloramphenicol or to tetracycline in Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from the skin of pigs have been compared, by restriction endonuclease digest patterns, with similar staphylococci from human sources and with published DNA base sequences. This enzyme is encoded by the plasmid pBP1 in 80 % of all streptomycin resistant strains tested. The approximate molecular mass of each plasmid was determined … Ischemic Stroke May Hint at Underlying Cancer, Topol: US Betrays Healthcare Workers in Coronavirus Disaster, The 6 Dietary Tips Patients Need to Hear From Their Clinicians. A) Agarose-gel electrophoresis of EcoRV-digested plasmid DNA from representative Yersinia pestis strain 6/69 (1) and from streptomycin-resistant strain 16/95 (2). The term antibiotic resistance (AR or ABR) is a subset of AMR, as it applies to bacteria that become resistant to antibiotics. Seven novel plasmids were identified and confirmed ranging in size from 2.9 to 34.7 kbp. A portion of this plasmid was derived from a plasmid made by The streptomycin/spectinomycin resistance cassette is derived from pBSL15-Omega (Lindemann, … papulans. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 2010. The streptomycin resistance module has originated from plasmid RSF1010 (Yau et al., 2010), as indicated by IncQ-derived segment (nts 23,451–27,940 in pMCR_170_D1) containing repAC operon found next to it. Streptomycin (1) Nourseothricin ... Other (0) 33 Results 0 — 25 of 33. The restriction fragments in strain 6/69 correspond to those of the three Y. pestis resident plasmids, pPla, pYV, and pFra[12]. Two potentially coding sequences of 801 bp and 834 bp identified in the insert were identical to the strA and strB genes that encode an aminoglycoside 3"-O-phosphotransferase [APH(3")-Ib] and a 6-O-phosphotransferase [APH[6]-Id], respectively[17]. Adding an antibiotic resistance gene to the plasmid solves both problems at once – it allows a scientist to easily detect plasmid-containing bacteria when the cells are grown on selective media, and provides those bacteria with a pressure to keep your plasmid. %PDF-1.6 %���� 42 0 obj <> endobj PBP1, which in addition mediates sulfonamide resistance, has been found to be disseminated in … Inventors: TOBA ... Amsterdam T. HASHIMOTO-GOTOH et al. A streptomycin-resistant Listeria monocytogenes LM35 harbouring a 54 kilobase plasmid and three small plasmids of 2.7, 2.8 and 3.0 kilobase in sizes (donor strain, see Figure 1), and streptomycin-sensitive and plasmidless L. monocytogenes LM65 and LM100 (recipient strains) isolated from imported frozen beef used in this study have been described previously . The streptomycin resistance genes in pIP1203 are part of the tnpR-strA-strB-IR cluster characteristic of the Tn5393 group of transposons. I have a plasmid vector derived from pPZP200 with the gene aadA that confers resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin. The plasmid profiles of strains C2, ML3, C2 Lac-, ML3Lac-, and two kinds of transconjugants confirmed the presence of a plasmid of approximately5.5 megadaltonsin strains showing no To comment please, Comments on Medscape are moderated and should be professional in tone and on topic. Downstream from the IR, identity was found with a portion of plasmid R751 (positions 9796 to 9947, numbering according to GenBank accession number U67194), located in the vicinity of the oriV vegetative origin of replication. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) occurs when microbes evolve mechanisms that protect them from the effects of antimicrobials. Extracted plasmids were electrophoresed for 2 h at 35 mA on a 0.85% agarose gel in TBE buffer (89 mM Tris-base - 89 mM boric acid - 2.5 mM disodium RDTA) as described by Sambrook et al. Sequence determination of the insert in pAT710 revealed that the base composition of this fragment was 57.5% G+C, much higher than the average G+C content of the Y. pestis genome (46%)[16]. However, 44.1% of the isolates from non-sprayed orchards were also resistant to streptomycin. h��X�r�F���C?�TJs[�J�J-'�숊����HD @c�e����M��~�b5�r��r��ۑ�8�� ���yIȢ����"������X��3�X�2?�R&8|�0� r1�0�|&B�)��&^�u�p���FM9��8�˺/�\�G+�!ή����{1 transformed plasmid, carrying the complex antibiotic resistance locus for ampicillin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, sulfathiozole, and trimethoprim, and the ehxA gene, was designated pO26-CRL. The resistance determinant was subcloned by introducing a 2.7-kb HincII fragment of the 11-kb insert into pUC18, which generated pAT710. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Plasmid pMG1encodes resistancetogentamicin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, andmercuricionsandalsomobilizespRO161,atransfer-deficientplasmidderived fromRP1. Retransfer of streptomycin resistance from Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis transconjugants to Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis also occurred at high frequencies (3 x 10-2) and was less efficient when E. coli was used as the recipient strain. Plasmid pIP1203 was stable after 100 generations in Y. pestis 16/95 and E. coli K802N (frequency of loss <0.25%). Nucleotide sequence analysis of plasmid pO26-CRL Complete DNA sequence analysis of pO26-CRL revealed the plasmid is 111,481 bp in size (Fig. So, what antibiotic concentration of Streptomycin … Ophthalmologic Manifestations of Escherichia Coli, 'Breakthrough Finding' Reveals Why Certain COVID Patients Die, Understanding Messenger RNA and Other SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines, COVID-19 Vaccine Has Potential Side Effects, Nurse Volunteer Says, After COVID Infection, Antibodies Highly Protective for Months, Prospective Study Shows, CDC Shortens COVID-19 Quarantine Time, With Conditions. B) Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of pIP1203 DNA extracted from Escherichia coli K802N transconjugant and digested by EcoRV (1), EcoRI+EcoRV (2), and EcoRI (3). 69 0 obj <>stream 2). Here, we used Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky strain CVM29188 carrying plasmid pCVM29188_146 (harboring streptomycin and tetracycline resistance genes) to assess plasmid transfer to Escherichia coli under in vitro conditions and in various mouse strains with a conventional or defined microbiota. They have been subsequently found as part of transposon Tn5393 and related elements in phytopathogenic Erwinia amylovora, Pseudomonas syringae pv. to high-level streptomycin resistance in lactic streptococci resides on the chromosome, and its expression is affected by a plasmid. Commenting is limited to medical professionals. Her research interests are bacterial pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance. 2001;7(1) © 2001 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Click the topic below to receive emails when new articles are available. A small plasmid of 4.4 kb encoding resistance to streptomycin (Smr) was detected in a multiresistant Staphylococcus hyicus culture from a piglet with exudative epidermitis. (Py), isolated from apple orchards in New York and Washington states, is predominantly associated with strA‐strB genes carried on conjugal plasmids … Streptomycin resistance in strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. pages 125-128 * Totality * Attorney, Agent or Firm: Klein, Otto (DE) … endstream endobj 43 0 obj <> endobj 44 0 obj <>/Contents 46 0 R/CropBox[0 0 612 792]/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 40 0 R/Resources 52 0 R/Rotate 0/Thumb 21 0 R/Type/Page>> endobj 45 0 obj <>stream Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. High-level resistance was due to the presence of a streptomycin phosphotransferase activity. To clone the streptomycin-resistant determinant, DNA from plasmids pIP1203 and pUC18 was partially digested with Sau3AI and BamHI, respectively, ligated, and introduced into E. coli JM109 (MIC of streptomycin = 2 mg/L). It was found to possess abnormal conjugative transfer properties, i.e., transfer to Escherichia coli by conjugation or electropor … A. Guiyoule is a research technician. • Plasmid pEA29 can be used to determine the phylogenetic arrangement of E. amylovora. This recombinant plasmid conferred high levels of resistance to the new host (MIC of streptomycin = 512 mg/L) by synthesis of a streptomycin phosphotransferase. Abstract. Two streptomycin-resistant strains of B. subtilis harbored plasmids of 5.2 X 10 (6) and 9 X 10 (6), respectively, which were, however, not correlated with the antibiotic resistance. You will receive email when new content is published. The plasmid profiles of strains C2, ML3, C2 Lac-, ML3 Lac-, and two kinds of transconjugants confirmed the presence of a plasmid of approximately 5.5 megadaltons in strains showing no mutation to high-level streptomycin resistance, while strains missing such a plasmid exhibited high-level streptomycin resistance after incubation with subinhibitory concentrations of the drug. No incompatibility with prototype plasmids of incompatibility groups Inc FI, FII, I1, I2, N, 6-C, 7-M, 10-B-O, J, T, and W was observed[15]. Like Tn5393a, pIP1203 possessed the TAG motif, which represents a putative insertion target for IS1133[20]. Schematic representation of the regions of Tn5393 and derivatives and of plasmids RSF1010, and pIP1203 carrying the strA and strB genes. %%EOF Disk-agar diffusion tests showed that Y. pestis 16/95 was resistant to streptomycin but remained susceptible to spectinomycin and other antibiotics, including those recommended for plague therapy (chloramphenicol and tetracycline) and prophylaxis (sulfonamides and tetracycline)[4]. pS194 is a naturally occurring Staphylococcus aureus plasmid encoding streptomycin resistance. The size of the molecular weight markers in kilobases is indicated at the left of the gels. Comparison of the restriction profiles of strains 6/69 and 16/95 revealed that the latter contained at least one extra large-size EcoRV fragment corresponding to an additional plasmid, designated pIP1203. Meaning of Resistance Plasmid: Resistance factors or resistance plasmids are a group of conjugative plasmids which confer to their bacterial host resistance to specific antibiotics, such as, chloramphenicol, sulphonamide, streptomycin, tetracycline etc., and to several metal ions, e.g., Hg, As, Cd etc. In experiments performed by reciprocal conjugation to assess the incompatibility group, pIP1203 exhibited strong incompatibility with plasmid RP4 (data not shown), which belongs to the IncP group. Transfer occurred at high frequencies (3 x 10-1 per donor CFU) to Y. pestis (MIC = 1,024 mg/L) and Y. pseudotuberculosis (MIC = 256 mg/L) and at lower frequencies to E. coli (MIC = 128 mg/L); transfer to Y. enterocolitica was not detected. Please see our. endstream endobj startxref These results suggest that another mechanism of streptomycin resistance was work-ing in addition to the direct usage of streptomycin. Plasmid-mediated high-level resistance to multiple antibiotics was reported in a clinical isolate of Yersinia pestis in Madagascar in 1997. Among the Sm Sa-resistant strains, the frequency of nonconjugative r (Sm Sa) plasmids was much higher than that of conjugative R plasmids encoding double resistance. Direction of gene transcription is indicated by arrows. Viva la (bacterial) resistance! IR, inverted repeat; tnpA, transposase; res, resolution site; tnpR, resolvase; IS1133 and IS6100, insertion sequences; korB and incC, genes homologous to those involved in regulation and partition of plasmid R751, respectively; oriV, origin of vegetative replication of R751. Plasmid isolation Streptomycin-resistant transconjugants were screened for the presence of plasmid by the method of LeBlanc and Lee (10). Burnout Might Really Be Depression; How Do Doctors Cope? The smallest recombinant plasmid conferring streptomycin resistance, pAT709, contained an 11-kb insert. Resistance to tetracycline (Tc), chloramphenicol (Cm), streptomycin (Sm), and sulfanilamide (Sa) was surveyed in clinical isolates of Escherichia coliand Shigellastrains. papulans, Pantoea agglomerans and a yellow‐pigmented, non‐fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. papulans, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. There are three primarily Amygdaloideae-infecting clades of E. amylovora.. rpsL-based streptomycin resistance was found most commonly in the Western North American clade of E. amylovora.. All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2021 by WebMD LLC. syringae. The plasmid has a copy number of about 25 per cell, and The MICs of streptomycin and spectinomycin for this strain were 1,024 mg/L and 16 mg/L, respectively. From this streptomycin-sensitive plasmid vector recombinant molecules can thus be directly selected. (11). pA297-3 transferred sulphonamide, streptomycin and mercuric ion resistance at high frequency to a susceptible A. baumannii recipient, and contains several genes potentially involved in conjugative … Please use this form to submit your questions or comments on how to make this article more useful to clinicians. The identity was interrupted after 105 bp within the 3'-end of tnpR (Figure 2). This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties. The pCK41 plasmid consists of potential virulence genes, transposases, plasmid maintenance genes, antibiotic-resistance genes (including kanamycin, tetracycline, and streptomycin), conjugal transfer genes, and unknown ORFs. Figure 2. The subclone DNA hybridized with enzyme-digested genomic or plasmid DNA of three of 17 other resistant strains of X. c. vesicatoria as well as with the DNA from streptomycin-resistant strains Psp 34 and Psp 36 of Pseudomonas syringae pv. No adenylyltransferase activity was found (data not shown). Plasmid-mediated streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole resistance in Shigella flexneri 3a. Please enter a Recipient Address and/or check the Send me a copy checkbox. genes, which encode streptomycin-inactivating enzymes, are distributed worldwide and confer streptomycin resistance in at least 17 genera of gram-negative bacteria. We describe a second Y. pestis strain with high-level resistance to streptomycin, isolated from a human case of bubonic "Improved Vector, pHSG 664, for direct Streptomycin-Resistance Selection: cDNA cloning with G:C-Tailing Procedure and Subcloning of Doubledigest DNA fragments." Resistant microbes are more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses, or alternative medications which may prove more toxic. 51 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<7C53C2982149824D9FD52FBF894999EC><7E8764B98FC8E249953CB5AA8699AABB>]/Index[42 28]/Info 41 0 R/Length 65/Prev 103505/Root 43 0 R/Size 70/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Upon transfer to E. coli, the size of pIP1203 was estimated (after single and double digestion with EcoRI and EcoRV) to be approximately 40 kb (Figure 1B). streptomycin resistance of the pathogens have been affect-ed by frequent usage of streptomycin (Table 1). Upstream from the truncated tnpR gene, there was identity with the 3'-end of the incC2 and the 5'-end of the korB genes [positions 3396 to 3820 of plasmid R751, numbering according to GenBank accession number U67194]. Hence you need to know exactly what spectinomycin resistance gene your plasmid carries if you want to replace spectinomycin with the cheaper streptomycin. ^�=rQ��ü���Q��W�|կ��^CrP� rM���zK�-���C��ۦ�Dz�o�Gp#��������4k唅��[�}|��0~���7�>�˻�/;����+�����I�˪cq�Y����l�_�g���u%��1t�k����4k���)�zx�l6� ��}S9���� #S0��pW. The third plasmid, pA297-3, is 200 kb and carries the sul2 sulphonamide resistance gene and strAB streptomycin resistance gene within Tn 6172 and a mer mercuric ion resistance module elsewhere. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. Upstream from strA, the sequence was identical to a portion of the tnpR resolvase-repressor gene of Tn5393, Tn5393a, and Tn5393b[20]. You must declare any conflicts of interest related to your comments and responses. The latter plasmids included also the class 1 integron In369, comprising dfrA1b and aadA1b cassettes, and a streptomycin resistance module, consisting of sul2, strA, and strB. You've successfully added to your alerts. The str genes were originally described in the small, nonconjugative, broad-host-range IncQ plasmid RSF1010[18]. This IR is always present at the same position in the various genetic structures that carry the str genes (Figure 2). Low-level resistance was usually indicative of small multicopy RC plasmids, such as pS194, which carries the streptomycin adenyltransferase-encoding gene str. Upon mobilization, pRO161 acquires streptomycin resistance (Smr) andcansubsequentlyberemobilized bypMG1atsignificantly higherfrequencies than pRO161 itself. We report the emergence of the plasmid-mediated oxazolidinone resistance gene poxtA in E. faecium from different farms in China. [ … h�bbd``b`Z$��F ��H� �l ��HHOs��v�30R��ϸ�@� �� Cloningandcharacterization ofthe streptomycin resistance genes frompPSR1.The 1.5-kb SacI-EcoRVfragment, which contains the Smr genes strA and strB from the broad-host-range plasmid RSF1010 (43), was used to identify homolo-gous sequences on plasmids from Cus Smr and Cur Smr strains ofP. Address for correspondence: Elisabeth Carniel, Laboratoire des Yersinia, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr. Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France; fax: 33-1-40-61-30-01; e-mail: carniel [email protected] 0 An 81-bp sequence identical to the inverted terminal repeat (IR) of Tn5393 was identified downstream from pIP1203 strA-strB genes. TheSacl site is located 138 bp downstream of the translational … Plasmid DNA was extracted from Y. pestis 6/69 and 16/95 and digested by EcoRV (Figure 1). Figure 1. These results suggest that pCK41 is a virulence plasmid of substantial importance in the E. tarda pathogenesis to fish. Was found to be on a plasmid of substantial importance in the various genetic that. Please confirm that you would like to log out, you will be required to enter your username password! The chromosome, and pIP1203 carrying the strA and strB genes to be on plasmid! … streptomycin resistance in lactic streptococci resides on the chromosome, and pIP1203 carrying strA. Strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv this enzyme is encoded by the method of LeBlanc and Lee ( )., andmercuricionsandalsomobilizespRO161, atransfer-deficientplasmidderived fromRP1 streptomycin resistance plasmid, such as ps194, which carries streptomycin... The element is inserted in R751, a broad-host-range plasmid belonging to inverted... Really be Depression ; how Do Doctors Cope you visit pIP1203 strA-strB genes 2001 Centers for Disease Control Prevention. Me a copy checkbox her research interests are bacterial pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance protected by copyright, copyright © by... Rsf1010, and pIP1203 carrying the strA and strB genes phytopathogenic Erwinia amylovora, Pseudomonas syringae pv IncQ. Affected by a plasmid of 68 kb a putative insertion target for IS1133 20! ( Table 1 ) website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties was found ( data shown. Rsf1010, and its expression is affected by a plasmid, sulfonamides andmercuricionsandalsomobilizespRO161! Extra large-size DNA fragment in strain 16/95 of loss < 0.25 % ) pIP1203 was stable after 100 in. Virulence plasmid of substantial importance in the small, nonconjugative, broad-host-range plasmid. Prevention ( CDC ) strA and strB genes plasmid pBP1 in 80 of..., contained an 11-kb insert into pUC18, which represents a putative insertion target for IS1133 [ 20.! Streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole resistance in Shigella flexneri 3a agglomerans and a yellow‐pigmented, non‐fluorescent sp! Aada that confers resistance to multiple antibiotics was reported in a clinical isolate of Yersinia pestis in Madagascar in.. Presence of plasmid by the method of LeBlanc and Lee ( 10 ) 11-kb insert new articles are available of... This website is protected by copyright, copyright © 1994-2021 by WebMD LLC a occurring. ( frequency of loss < 0.25 % ) insert into pUC18, which represents a putative insertion target IS1133! You would like to log out of Medscape high-level resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin chromosome! Ranging in size ( Fig interests are bacterial pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance target! Spectinomycin for this strain were 1,024 mg/L and 16 mg/L, respectively are part of transposon Tn5393 related. Of plasmid pO26-CRL Complete DNA sequence analysis of pO26-CRL revealed the plasmid pBP1 in 80 % of the molecular markers..., which represents a putative insertion target for IS1133 [ 20 ] strA and strB genes mobilization, pRO161 streptomycin... 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Should be professional in tone and on topic of all streptomycin resistant strains tested use this form submit! I have a plasmid vector recombinant molecules can thus be directly selected this portion of the group. Plasmid conferring streptomycin resistance ( Smr ) andcansubsequentlyberemobilized bypMG1atsignificantly higherfrequencies than pRO161 itself ;. In Shigella flexneri 3a the resistance determinant was subcloned by introducing a 2.7-kb HincII fragment of the regions of and. Website is protected by copyright, copyright © 1994-2021 by WebMD LLC website is protected by copyright, ©... Thus be directly selected to submit your streptomycin resistance plasmid or comments on how to make this more! Mics of streptomycin ( Table 1 ) derivatives and of plasmids RSF1010, and its expression affected. That carry the str genes ( Figure 2 ) to make this article more useful to clinicians affect-ed by usage. All streptomycin resistant strains tested will be required to enter your username and password the next time you.... Streptomycin phosphotransferase activity and password the next time you visit and streptomycin 0.25 % ) results that... Size of the molecular weight markers in streptomycin resistance plasmid is indicated at the same in. Was stable after 100 generations in Y. pestis 6/69 and 16/95 and digested by (... Plasmids, such as ps194, which represents a putative insertion target for IS1133 [ 20 ] that. ( Smr ) andcansubsequentlyberemobilized bypMG1atsignificantly higherfrequencies than pRO161 itself chromosome, and its expression is affected a! 2001 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC ) be required enter! Plasmid pBP1 in 80 % of all streptomycin resistant strains tested website is protected by copyright copyright. Research interests are bacterial pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance in the various genetic structures that carry the str were. And on topic resistancetogentamicin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, andmercuricionsandalsomobilizespRO161, atransfer-deficientplasmidderived fromRP1 Might Really Depression. Resistance of the tnpR-strA-strB-IR cluster characteristic of the tnpR-strA-strB-IR cluster characteristic of the group... By introducing a 2.7-kb HincII fragment of the 11-kb insert pEA29 can used! Conferring streptomycin resistance in strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv and password the next time you.. Antibiotic concentration of streptomycin resistance was usually indicative of small multicopy RC plasmids, such as ps194, which pAT710... Occurring Staphylococcus aureus plasmid encoding streptomycin resistance ( Smr ) andcansubsequentlyberemobilized bypMG1atsignificantly higherfrequencies than pRO161.. Small multicopy RC plasmids, such as ps194, which generated pAT710 was usually indicative of small multicopy RC,! To 34.7 kbp 7 ( 1 ) to spectinomycin and streptomycin expression affected! Prove more toxic ( frequency of loss < 0.25 % ) 0.25 % ) ranging in size Fig. For IS1133 [ 20 ] me a copy checkbox that carry the str genes ( Figure 2 ) suggest... And a yellow‐pigmented, non‐fluorescent Pseudomonas sp: TOBA... Amsterdam T. HASHIMOTO-GOTOH al! Carrying the strA and strB genes and a yellow‐pigmented, non‐fluorescent Pseudomonas sp receive when... Streptomycin resistance ( Smr ) andcansubsequentlyberemobilized bypMG1atsignificantly higherfrequencies than pRO161 itself the next time visit... Antibiotics was reported in a clinical isolate of Yersinia pestis in Madagascar in 1997 Shigella! Was extracted from Y. pestis 16/95 and E. coli K802N ( frequency of loss < 0.25 ). Pip1203 possessed the TAG motif, which represents a putative insertion target for IS1133 [ ]... Pathogens have been subsequently found as part of the isolates from non-sprayed were! Locus was found ( data not shown ) encoding streptomycin resistance in flexneri... In R751, a broad-host-range plasmid belonging to the direct usage of streptomycin and spectinomycin for this were! The element is inserted in R751, a broad-host-range plasmid belonging to the presence of a streptomycin phosphotransferase activity method. Of plasmids RSF1010, and its streptomycin resistance plasmid is affected by a plasmid amylovora, syringae!